Let’s continue to rethink the gruesome (so is it argued here) category of adverbs (in the classical sense). Let’s now turn our attention to the category of ‘adverb modifiers’. Adverbs are understood here in a restricted sense: they are either verb modifiers or proposition modifiers. In this context, we are likely to encounter adverb modifiers. In general, the adverb modifier precedes the adverb. Thus, very (‘très’) is an adverb modifier in the sequence he was eating very rarely (il mangeait très rarement’, manghjava mori raramenti).
Likewise more (‘plus’, più) is in some cases an adverb modifier. This is the case in the sequence he was drinking more frequently (‘il buvait plus fréquemment’, biia più suventi).
Let’s focus on analyzing the following phrases:
- à force de courage (bravely)
- à force de courage et de persévérance (by dint of courage and perseverance)
- avec beaucoup d’abnégation (selflessly)
- d’une manière ou d’une autre (in any way)
- d’une façon vraiment admirable (in a very admirable way)
- au moment le plus opportun (when most appropriate)
What is their grammatical nature? From the point of view of two-sided grammar, what are they?
From a synthetic standpoint, first of all, they are adverbs. Let us turn now to their nature from an analytical point of view.
- à force de courage (bravely): analytically, it is a preposition, followed by a common noun, then another preposition, then another common noun: PS-NC-PS-NC.
- à force de courage et de persévérance (by dint of courage and perseverance): analytically, it is a preposition, followed by a common noun, then another preposition, then another common noun, then a conjunction, then another preposition and then another common noun: PS-NC-PS-NC-CONJ-PS-NC.
- and so on
Let us try to delve more deeply into the case of adverbs. We shall continue now to define them by their position in relation to other grammatical categories. The result is that adverbs are divided into several different categories. Now let’s look at the adverbs that may be placed before an adjective modulator. To begin with, let us cite but a few adjective modulators:
- peu, très, extrêmement, surtout, étonnamment, à peine, vraiment, assez, bien, trop, tellement, etc.
- pocu, assai, estremamente, sopratuttu, in modu stunante, appena, propriu/propria/proprii/proprie, abbastanza, bellu/bella/belli/belle, troppu/troppa/troppi, troppe, tantu/tanta, tanti/tante, etc.
- not very, very, extremely, especially, surprisingly, hardly, really, enough, all/very, too, so, etc.
Now some modulators of adjective modulators are:
- pas, peut-être, surtout, vraiment, etc.
- micca, forse, soprattuttu, veramente, è cetera.
- not, maybe, mostly, really, etc.
Here are some relevant examples: “il était surtout trop blanc” (he was mostly too white, era sopratuttu troppu biancu); “il était vraiment très beau” (he was really very beautiful, era propriu bellissimu); “il était bien trop grand” (he was far too tall ; era bellu troppu maiore).
Let’s call this category modulators of adjective modulators. The fact of being placed before the adjective modulator is related to the fact that the modulator modifies the meaning of the adjectivemodulator.
Hence, if we reason in terms of two-sided grammar, an adjective modulator preceded by a modulator remains an adjective modulator: MOD-MODAQ = MODAQ.
To sum up. So far we have distinguished several categories among the classical class of adverbs:
- modulators of adjectives
- modulators preceding verbs: verb pre-modulators
- modulators following verbs: verb post-modulators
- modulators preceding cardinal determinants
- modulators preceding adjective modulators